Below are just a few sources concerning the use of American Indians as mascots in collegial and professional sports.
|Website for In Whose Honor, Jay Rosenstein Productions|
NCAI was founded in 1944. NCAI is a non-profit, organized as a representative congress of American Indians and Alaska Natives that serves to develop consensus on national priority issues that impact tribal sovereignty.
NCAI developed a statement addressing the use of mascots in sports.
National Congress of American Indians: Anti-Defamation & Mascots
In 2005 the American Psychological Association (APA) called for the immediate retirement of all American Indian mascots, symbols, images and personalities by schools, colleges, universities, athletic teams and organizations. APA's position is based on a growing body of social science literature that shows the harmful effects of racial stereotyping and inaccurate racial portrayals, including the particularly harmful effects of American Indian sports mascots on the social identity development and self-esteem of American Indian young people.
Journal Articles*Before the Redskins were the Redskins: The Use of Native American Team Names in the Formative Era of American Sports, 1857-1933 by Hylton J. Gordon in the North Dakota Law Review Volume 279, 2010
*Eliminating Native American Mascots: Ingredients for Success by Laurel R. Davis-Delano Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Volume 31, November 2007
*A Mysterious Defense of The Washington Redskins Name by Sean Gregory, Time, 2013.
BlogI recommend following the Native Appropriations Blog. It covers many of the issues surrounding representations of indigenous people.
*Note that due to licensing agreements some articles are only available if you are using a University of Minnesota computer. Currently enrolled students, staff, and faculty have access through their University of Minnesota Internet ID.